What is a subsidized loan?
A subsidized loan is a type of federal student loan. With a subsidized direct loan, the bank, or the government (for Federal Direct Subsidized Loans, also known as Subsidized Stafford Loans) is paying the interest for you while you’re in school (a minimum of half time), during your post-graduation grace period, and if you need a loan deferment.
You’re effectively getting your responsibility to pay that interest back “waived” with a subsidized loan during those time periods. Once you start repayment, the government stops paying on that interest, and your repayment amount includes the original amount of the loan, and the interest, accruing from that moment.
What is an unsubsidized loan?
Another type of federal loan is an unsubsidized loan. With an unsubsidized loan, you are responsible for the interest from the moment the loan money is disbursed into your account. There’s no help on the interest; you’re responsible for the whole amount.
So, when you start repaying, you’re paying on the original amount and the interest that accrued since the loan was paid to you. This can, of course, add up to thousands of dollars more to repay over the life of the loan.
So why would anyone ever take out an unsubsidized loan
Simply put, subsidized loan offers are based solely on need, when you apply for aid through the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA), and they are only available to undergraduate students. Generally, you’ll find out how much you’re allowed to borrow on a subsidized loan, for a particular school, via your school’s financial aid offer. Colleges set those amounts individually. If you’re eligible for a subsidized loan, it will be part of your offer.
On the “un” side, you do not have to demonstrate need for an unsubsidized loan, so you can borrow more money, and use the funds to pay for a graduate degree, for example. This option will also be in your offer packet, but if you’re eligible for a subsidized loan, I recommend you take that option first.
The FAFSA is key
If you need to take out a loan to make ends meet, know that you’re not alone. College is expensive and no one expects you to have planned for all contingencies. Just be sure to file the FAFSA—it’s the key to all federal financial aid, including college scholarships, college grants, and your eligibility for subsidized and unsubsidized student loans.